The institute of soil and water conservation (ISWC),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) & Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), was founded in 1956 and was the first scientific research institution established in the Northwest of China by CAS. It came under the direction of CAS and MWR both from 1987. In 1998, ISWC became part of the “Pilot Project of the Knowledge Innovation Program (PPKIP)” in the first group of CAS Institutes. In 1999, ISWC participated in establishing the Northwest A&F University, in accordance with the direction of the State Council. In 2001, ISWC came under the direction of both CAS and the Ministry of Education as the Research Center of Soil & Water Conservation and Ecological Environment. During these years, it has been continually funded by the National Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS and is still managed by CAS as one of its institutes.