This book is intended to be a constituent companion of structured textbooks on soil science, soil conservation, soil physics, soil health, soil and water conservation, etc. A single book cannot afford to deal with all aspects of knowledge of soil science, as that branch of science has grown up to the unthinkable dimensions from studies on massive soil mass to soil particles and colloidal clay micelle, soil microbial community, soil organic matter, soil nutrients, soil moisture and their uptake by plants, management of aquatic environment. Moreover, physical, chemical, microbial and biochemical properties of soils and their interactions with climate and hydrological conditions for successful crop cultivation should be considered in this ambit. Naturally, all the relevant books have to deal with the application of methodologies for determining all those vast soil features, from gravimetric methods to applications of nuclear and nanotechnologies, and application of soil and water conservation methods. Basically, the correct management of soil organic matter and soil moisture would diminish soil loss and simplify the management of problem soils and irrigation water with the aim of reaching the 15 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. Consequently, this book presents a brief discourse on the development of basic ideas concerning above-mentioned areas of concepts and applications. Hopefully, this book will be a ready reference for students appearing in competitive exams and internship evaluation projects and serve as a brief commentary for studies, research and field works targeted on individual agricultural plots and further development of soil and water conservation as a full-fledged stream of science. [Series Editor’s Foreword – Salvatore Parisi, Series Editor for SpringerBriefs in Chemistry of Foods].